The Art of Madhubani #HandmadeInIndia

So what is a Madhubani painting? Where is it practiced? What are its key characteristics? Who are the most famous Madhubani artists? Are there any online tutorials to learn this art? Where can I buy products inspired by Madhubani art? Find answers to all these questions and more in our comprehensive piece on the fascinating world of Madhubani art.

Madhubani painting or Mithila painting is a style of art practiced in the Mithila region of Nepal and in Bihar in India. Madhubani paintings are created using fingers, twigs, brushes, nib-pens, and matchsticks, using natural dyes and pigments and characterized by eye-catching geometrical patterns. Madhubani paintings are usually about occasions and festival such as birth, marriage, Holi, Surya Shasti, Kali Puja, Upanayanam, Durga Puja, and other important days in the Hindu calendar and culture. The Mithila region, from which the name Mithila art is derived, is believed to have been the kingdom of King Janak, a name readers of the Ramayana may be familiar with. The exact location of it lies in present-day Janakpur of Nepal.

Time and place of Madhubani Art

The exact time when Mithila art originated is not known. According to local mythology, it all began around the time of Ramayana, when King Janaka of Nepal ordered his kingdom to decorate the town to commemorate and celebrate his daughter Sita’s wedding to Lord Rama.

Dig a little deeper into the history of Madhubani art and you will discover that the ancient tradition of elaborate wall paintings or Bhitti-Chitra in Nepal and Bihar played a major role in the emergence of the Madhubani art form.

Furthermore, the original inspiration for Madhubani art emerged from the womenfolk’s craving for religiousness and an intense desire to be one with God. With the belief that painting something divine would achieve that desire, women began to paint pictures of gods and goddesses with an interpretation so divine that it captured the hearts of many.

Madhubani, which by one account means Forest of Honey, (‘Madhu’-honey, ‘Ban’-forest or woods) is a region in Mithila and a distinct identity and language that is believed to go back over 2500 years.

These paintings were traditionally created by the women of the Brahman, Dusadh, and Kayastha communities in Mithila region. The art form originated in Madhubani village of the capital city of Ancient Mithila, known as Janakpur and has remained confined to a compact geographical area, with the skills passed on through generations and centuries. Even the content and the style of this art form have largely remained the same. It is for these reasons that Madhubani painting has been accorded the coveted GI (Geographical Indication) status.

Madhubani Art – Castes of characters

Madhubani art has five distinctive styles, namely, Bharni, Katchni, Tantrik, Nepali, and Kohbar. In the 1960s Bharni, Kachni and Tantrik style were mainly done by Brahman and Kayashth women (considered upper-castes) in India and Nepal. Their themes were mainly religious, and they depicted Gods and Goddesses in their paintings.

On the other hand, people of lower castes and classes included aspects of their daily life in their paintings. The Godna and Kohbar styles, for instance, are the preserve of the Dalit and Dushadh communities. Kohbar paintings are usually made by a to-be bride’s family as a present to a to-be groom’s family.

A Kohbar-style Madhubani Painting showing aspects of daily life

Women drivers of Madhubani Art

The women painters of Mithila lived in a closed society. It is believed that the Madhubani painting tradition began when Raja Janak of Nepal commissioned local artists to paint murals in his palace in preparations for the marriage of his daughter Sita to Lord Ram. The paintings were originally done on walls coated with mud and cow dung. The kohbar ghar or the nuptial chamber was the room in which the paintings were traditionally done.

Originally the paintings depicted an assembly of symbolic images of the lotus plant, the bamboo grove, fishes, birds and snakes in union. These images represented fertility and proliferation of life. There used to be a tradition that the newly married bride and groom would spend three nights in the kohbar ghar without cohabiting. On the fourth night they would consummate the marriage surrounded with the colourful painting. The Mithila paintings were done only by women of the house, the village, and the caste, and only on occasion of marriages.

Madhubani Art – Going places

Mithila painting, as a domestic ritual activity, was unknown to the outside world until the massive India-Nepal border earthquake of 1934. The quake brought the houses tumbling down and the art out in the open.

The then British colonial officer in Madhubani District, William G. Archer, while inspecting the damage “discovered” the paintings on the newly exposed interior walls of the homes of Mithila and was struck by reported similarities to the work of modern Western artists like Miro and Picasso. He took black and white photos of some of these paintings, which today are the earliest images of the art. In addition, William G. Archer also wrote about the paintings in a 1949 article in ‘Marg’ an Indo-Nepal Art Journal. Thus began the spread of Madhubani Art.

Pioneering art historians and writers, William George Archer and his wife Mildred Agnes Bell

Years later, the drought from 1966 to 1968 crippled the agricultural economy of the region. As part of a larger initiative to bring economic relief to the stricken people, Ms. Pupul Jayakar, the then Director of the All Indo-Nepal Handicrafts Board, sent the Bombay-based artist Mr. Bhaskar Kulkarni to Mithila to encourage women there to replicate their mural paintings on paper in order to facilitate sales as a source of income to ensure survival.

The contribution of foreign scholars in promoting the art form internationally has also been immense. Yves Vequad, a French novelist and journalist, wrote a book in the early 1970s on the basis of his research on Mithila painting and produced a film ‘The Women Painters of Mithila’.

The German anthropologist film-maker and social activist Erika Moser persuaded the impoverished Dusadh community to paint. The result was the Dusadh captured their oral history (such as the adventures of Raja Salhesh, and depictions of their primary deity, Rahu) — typified by bold compositions and figures based on traditional tattoo patterns called Goidna locally. This added another distinctive new style to the region’s flourishing art scene.

Madhubani Wall Painting at the National Crafts Museum, Delhi (Picture Courtesy: Flickr)

With the financial support of Moser and Raymond Lee Owens (a Fulbright Scholar then), along with land in Jitwarpur donated by Anthropologist Erika Moser, the likes of Dr. Gauri Mishra spearheaded the setting up of the Master Craftsmen Association of Mithila in 1977. This association was very active during the life time of Owens and worked in tandem with Ethnic Arts Foundation of USA.

Even the Ford Foundation has a long history of association with Madhubani painting. Ms. Viji Srinivasan, then a programme officer with Ford Foundation, and who later set up an NGO Adithi headquartered in Bihar and worked on women’s issues including livelihood through handicrafts too played a role in nurturing the cluster.

Since the 1990s, Japan has also shown a keen interest in Madhubani paintings, mainly because of the initiatives of Tokyo Hasegawa, who set up the Mithila Museum in Tokamachi, where around 850 Madhubani paintings are exhibited on a regular basis. As a result of all these initiatives, Madhubani Art is well known all over the world today.

Stars of Madhubani Art

Madhubani painting received official recognition in 1975, when the President of India awarded the Padma Shri to Jagdamba Devi, of Jitwarpur village near Madhubani. This was just the beginning. In 1981 Sita Devi was awarded the Padma Shri. In 1990, Ganga Devi of Mithila was awarded the Padma Shri. Mahasundari Devi was awarded the Padma Shri in 2011. Furthermore, Baua Devi, Yamuna Devi, Shanti Devi, Chano Devi, Bindeshwari Devi , Chandrakala Devi, Shashikala Devi, Leela Devi, Godavari Dutta, Bharti Dayal, Chandrabhushan, Ambika Devi, Manisha Jha were also given National Awards.

Vegetal Colors on Paper depicting the Ram-Sita marriage- Jagadamba Devi (Padma Shri, 1975)

Kohbar/Nuptial Champar depiction by Legendary Artist Sita Devi (Padma Shri, 1981)

Ride in a Roller Coaster (1986) by Ganga Devi (Padma Shri, 1990)

Kohbar/Nuptial Champar depiction by Legendary Artist Mahasundari Devi (Padma Shri, 2011)

Depiction of the legend of Krishna by Baua Devi (National Award Winner, 1984)

The face (an allegory of the moon/sun) is a recurring subject in Yamuna Devi’s work. The distinctive double lines are inspired by the kohl applied around the eyes of newborn babies.
Yamuna Devi was the first untouchable among the Mithila women painters to receive a National Award.

Bharti Dayal – Flagbearer of the Current Generation of Madhubani Art

Bharti Dayal is a Madhubani artist and has played a significant role in the re-emergence and propagation of this art form. She is credited with contemporising the art form through the use of modern media (acrylic and canvas); and for bringing Madhubani art recognition within the world of fine art.

Mother Yasoda Feeding Little Krishna by Bharti Dayal

Smt Bharti Dayal won an Award from the All India Fine Arts and Crafts for fifty years of art in independent India and the state Award for kalamkari in Mithila Painting. Bharti Dayal’s painting “Eternal Music” bagged the top award at the Millennium Art Competition from AIFAC for the year 2001. Bharti Dayal was also honoured with The Vishist Bihari Samman amid festivities to commemorate 100 year of Bihar. She has been honoured with the Indira Gandhi Priyadarshini Award 2013 for her exceptional work in Madhubani Art, globally too.

The art of Madhubani on video

Madhubani Art is hard work. See how much and how to in this video.

And if you like what you see in the first video, you will find many more videos on the fine and divine art of Madhubani here.

Pinteresting stuff on Madhubani Art

Pinterest, with its emphasis on visual presentation is a great place to feast your eyes on the beauty of Madhubani Art. Here is a board that prove what a sight for sore eyes this ancient and intricate art is: Pinterest: Madhubani Board | Pinterest: More Search Results

Madhubani on Engrave

Here’s a handpicked list of 5 items from the vast collection of Madhubani paintings and Madhubani-inspired products on Engrave.

To check the complete range of Madhubani products on Engrave, head here.

Note: To browse through all the posts in the ‘Handmade in India’ series, click here.

Avinash Subramaniam

Avinash has been an advertising writer, fiction writer, poetry writer, freelance writer and serial wronger. Other roles he has been in include those of an editor, brand builder, and teacher. His interests include advertising, scrabble, body building, chess, cinema, making money, reading, internet culture, cricket, photography. To hear him air his thoughts, follow him on Twitter @armchairexpert.


  1. Avatar
    Kamakhya kumar jha August 04, 2018

    in this topic, to me, one important aspects is miserably missing about tantric painting one of the most mysterious cult in madhubani, mithila. However one person Bhasker kulkarni when he visited madhubani . in village of Harinagar adjacent to jitvarpur he used to met Pt. Digambar jha from whom he used to learn different aspects of Tantra its beauty and mystery, thereafter raymond Lee Owens also used to visit pt. Digambar jha and with the help of interpreter Ms. gauri Mishra ,Raymon Lee used to Gain Knowledge on tantric concept From him. later on other researcher also used to visit sh. Digambar jha for understsnding tantra. I therefore want to Know why his pious name is missing , when we talk about mithila and tantra

  2. Avatar
    Pallavi Desai January 18, 2020

    The Warli Art form is the pictorial language used to represent the tribal folk art of the early tribes of Thane district, Maharashtra.

  3. Avatar
    penkraft February 13, 2020

    Madhubani painting originated in a small village, known as Maithili, of the Bihar state of India. Initially, the women folk of the village drew the paintings on the walls of their home, as an illustration of their thoughts, hopes, and dreams.

    The traditional base of freshly plastered mud wall of the hut has now been replaced by cloth, handmade paper, and canvas. Since the paintings have been confined to a limited geographical range, the themes, as well as the style, are, more or less, the same. Indian Maithili paintings make use of three-dimensional images and the colours that are used are derived mainly from plants. The themes on which these paintings are based include nature and mythological events. The first reference to the Maithili painting of Bihar dates back to the time of Ramayana when King Janaka ordered the paintings to be created for his daughter, Sita’s, wedding


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